The Corruption Investigation Office for High-ranking Officials was officially launched on Thursday afternoon, with the inauguration of Kim Jin-wook as its first chief.
Kim is expected to start his three-year term by appointing a deputy head of the anti-corruption body.
The launch of the CIO is one of the key components of President Moon's pledge to reform the country's powerful institutions such as the state prosecution service, which has often been accused of having excessive authority.
President Moon asked Kim to lead the way to make South Korea a society without corruption.
He added it is important that the CIO is independent and unbiased from politics and inspection organization, but at the same time cooperate with the prosecution service and the police.