This year, three scientists were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their outstanding work on understanding complex physical systems, including the Earth's changing climate.
The laureates: Japanese-born American Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann from Germany, and Giorgio Parisi from Italy.
For in-depth analysis, I want to bring in Dr. Gopalakrishnan KUMAR, Professor of Environmental Engineering at the University of Stavanger in Norway.
Professor Kumar, welcome to the show.
Manabe and Hasselmann were awarded for "laying the foundation of our knowledge of the Earth's climate and how humanity influences it."
For example, Manabe has demonstrated how increased levels of carbon dioxide lead to increased temperatures on the Earth's surface.
And Hasselmann created a model that links together weather and climate.
Would you tell us a bit more about their works? How did they discover those things?
And Hasselmann's methods, in particular, have been used to prove that the increased temperature in the atmosphere is because of human emissions of carbon dioxide.
Will this help the world better understand the need for action against climate change particularly ahead of the COP26 in Glasgow this year?
And Parisi from Italy won the other half of the award for his contributions to finding out the "hidden rules" behind seemingly disordered materials and random processes and swirls in gases or liquids.
His discoveries can be applied not only in physics but in other areas, such as mathematics, biology, neuroscience and machine learning.
How do those "hidden rules" work and how are they related to our daily lives?
So this year, three scientists were awarded for two different types of discoveries. Which do you find more interesting or important?
Two scientists, Manabe and Hasselmann have been awarded for their works related to the Earth's climate and they will share the prize money. Is it usual for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to award multiple people?
That was Professor Kumar from Norway. Many thanks for your insights.